A multi-site model evaluation project for urban areas

Phase 2 Phase 1 Download project protocol
Mathew Lipson (UNSW), Sue Grimmond (Reading), Martin Best (Met Office),
with observational and modelling participants.

Surrey Hills, Melbourne, Australia (AU-SurreyHills)

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Observations (before additional gap filling)


Site forcing metadata

title URBAN-PLUMBER forcing data for AU-SurreyHills
summary Observed and ERA5-derived surface meteorological data for Surrey Hills, Melbourne, Australia. Data is for use by registered participants of Urban-PLUMBER in this project only. Do not distribute. All times in UTC.
sitename AU-SurreyHills
long_sitename Surrey Hills, Melbourne, Australia
version v0.9
conventions ALMA+CF.rev13
featureType timeSeries
time_coverage_start 1994-01-01 00:00:00
time_coverage_end 2004-07-19 23:30:00
time_analysis_start 2004-02-23 05:00:00
time_shown_in UTC
local_utc_offset_hours 10.0
timestep_interval_seconds 1800.0
timestep_number_spinup 177850
timestep_number_analysis 7094
observations_contact Andrew Coutts (andrew.coutts@monash.edu), Nigel Tapper (nigel.tapper@monash.edu)
observations_reference Coutts, Beringer and Tapper (2007a): https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1; Coutts, Beringer and Tapper (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.030
project_contact Mathew Lipson: m.lipson@unsw.edu.au, Sue Grimmond: c.s.grimmond@reading.ac.uk, Martin Best: martin.best@metoffice.gov.uk
date_created 2021-09-16 00:11:40
other_references ERA5: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2017): https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home NCI Australia: http://doi.org/10.25914/5f48874388857
acknowledgements Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information (ERA5 hourly data on single levels). Data from replica hosted by NCI Australia. With thanks to all involved in collecting, processing and hosting observational data
comment Gap-filled from nearby AU-Preston tower where available
history v0.9 (2021-09-08): beta issue

Site images

Region Regional map. © OpenStreetMap site_map Site map with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap
site_photo Site photo. © Coutts et al. (2007) site_sat Site aerial photo with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap, Microsoft

Maps developed from: Hrisko, J. (2020). Geographic Visualizations in Python with Cartopy. Maker Portal.

Site characteristics

id parameter value units source doi
1 latitude -37.8265 degrees_north Coutts et al. (2007a) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.030
2 longitude 145.099 degrees_east Coutts et al. (2007a) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.030
3 ground_height 97 m Coutts et al. (2007a) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.08.030
4 measurement_height_above_ground 38 m Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
5 impervious_area_fraction 0.54 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
6 tree_area_fraction 0.29 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
7 grass_area_fraction 0.15 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
8 bare_soil_area_fraction 0.01 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
9 water_area_fraction 0.01 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
10 roof_area_fraction 0.39 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
11 road_area_fraction 0.09 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
12 other_paved_area_fraction 0.06 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
13 building_mean_height 7.2 m Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
14 tree_mean_height 9 m estimate -
15 roughness_length_momentum 0.68 m Coutts et al. (2007b) (anemometric) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
16 displacement_height 7.92 m Coutts (2006) p228 https://monash.hosted.exlibrisgroup.com/MON:au_everything:catau21144060160001751
17 canyon_height_width_ratio 0.41 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
18 wall_to_plan_area_ratio 0.4 1 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
19 average_albedo_at_midday 0.168 1 median of observations -
20 resident_population_density 2748 person/km2 Coutts et al. (2007b) https://doi.org/10.1175/JAM2462.1
21 anthropogenic_heat_flux_mean 9.7 W/m2 Varquez et al. (2021) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00850-w
22 topsoil_clay_fraction 0.16 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525663
23 topsoil_sand_fraction 0.72 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525662
24 topsoil_bulk_density 1030 kg/m3 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525665
25 building_height_standard_deviation 3.86 m estimate, see notes derived using eq. 2 of Kanda et al. 2013
26 roughness_length_momentum_mac 0.21 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 26 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
27 displacement_height_mac 4.74 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 23 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
28 roughness_length_momentum_kanda 0.68 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
29 displacement_height_kanda 10.44 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)

Site forcing

SWdown forcing


LWdown forcing


Tair forcing


Qair forcing


PSurf forcing


Rainf forcing


Snowf forcing


Wind_N forcing


Wind_E forcing


Quality control (qc) and gap filling procedure

QC process on observations

  1. Out-of-range: removal of unphysical values (e.g. negative shortwave radiation) using the ALMA expected range protocol.
  2. Night: nocturnal shortwave radiation set to zero, excluding civil twilight (when the sun is 6° below the horizon).
  3. Constant: four or more timesteps with the same value (excluding zero values for shortwave radiation, rainfall and snowfall) are removed as suspicious.
  4. Outlier: remove values outside ±4 standard deviations for each hour in a rolling 30-day window (to account for diurnal and seasonal variations). Repeat with a larger tolerance (± 5 standard deviations) until no outliers remain. The outlier test is not applied to precipitation.
  5. Visual: remaining suspect readings are removed manually via visual inspection.

Gap-filling process

LWdown diurnal qc


LWup diurnal qc


PSurf diurnal qc


Qair diurnal qc


Qh diurnal qc


Qle diurnal qc


Qtau diurnal qc


Rainf diurnal qc


SWdown diurnal qc


SWup diurnal qc


Snowf diurnal qc


Tair diurnal qc


Wind_E diurnal qc


Wind_N diurnal qc


Bias correction diurnal comparison

Four methods drawing on ERA5 reanalysis are compared relative to the quality-controlled flux tower data. The methods are:

  1. ERA5: the nearest land based 0.25° resolution ERA5 grid (i.e. without bias correction)
  2. WFDE5: the nearest WFDE5 grid (which use 0.5° gridded monthly observations for bias correction)
  3. UP: the Urban-PLUMBER methods used in this collection (using site observations for bias correction)
  4. LN: linear methods based on FLUXNET2015 (using site observations for bias correction)

ERA5 bias correction

The UP methods are as follows:

Mean absolute error (MAE) is shown in the legend.

Tair diurnal bias correction


Qair diurnal bias correction


PSurf diurnal bias correction


LWdown diurnal bias correction


SWdown diurnal bias correction


Wind diurnal bias correction


Rainf diurnal bias correction


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