A multi-site model evaluation project for urban areas

Phase 2 Phase 1 Download project protocol
Mathew Lipson (UNSW), Sue Grimmond (Reading), Martin Best (Met Office),
with observational and modelling participants.

Kumpula, Helsinki, Finland (FI-Kumpula)

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Observations (before additional gap filling)


Site forcing metadata

title URBAN-PLUMBER forcing data for FI-Kumpula
summary Observed and ERA5-derived surface meteorological data for Kumpula, Helsinki, Finland. Data is for use by registered participants of Urban-PLUMBER in this project only. Do not distribute. All times in UTC.
sitename FI-Kumpula
long_sitename Kumpula, Helsinki, Finland
version v0.9
conventions ALMA+CF.rev13
featureType timeSeries
time_coverage_start 2000-01-01 00:00:00
time_coverage_end 2013-12-31 22:00:00
time_analysis_start 2010-12-31 22:30:00
time_shown_in UTC
local_utc_offset_hours 2.0
timestep_interval_seconds 1800.0
timestep_number_spinup 192861
timestep_number_analysis 52608
observations_contact Leena Järvi (leena.jarvi@helsinki.fi)
observations_reference Karsisto, Fortelius, Demuzere, Grimmond, Oleson, Kouznetsov, Masson and Järvi (2016): https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
project_contact Mathew Lipson: m.lipson@unsw.edu.au, Sue Grimmond: c.s.grimmond@reading.ac.uk, Martin Best: martin.best@metoffice.gov.uk
date_created 2021-09-16 00:58:30
other_references ERA5: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2017): https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home NCI Australia: http://doi.org/10.25914/5f48874388857
acknowledgements Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information (ERA5 hourly data on single levels). Data from replica hosted by NCI Australia. With thanks to all involved in collecting, processing and hosting observational data
comment Inhomogeneous footprint, land surface characteristics and turbulent flux data restricted to sectors 180-320 (Ku3 in Karsisto et al., 2016)
history v0.9 (2021-09-08): beta issue

Site images

Region Regional map. © OpenStreetMap site_map Site map with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap
site_photo Site photo. © L. Järvi site_sat Site aerial photo with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap, Microsoft

Maps developed from: Hrisko, J. (2020). Geographic Visualizations in Python with Cartopy. Maker Portal.

Site characteristics

id parameter value units source doi
1 latitude 60.2028 degrees_north Karsisto et al. (2016) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
2 longitude 24.9611 degrees_east Karsisto et al. (2016) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
3 ground_height 29 m Karsisto et al. (2016) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
4 measurement_height_above_ground 31 m Karsisto et al. (2016) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
5 impervious_area_fraction 0.46 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
6 tree_area_fraction 0.3 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
7 grass_area_fraction 0.24 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
8 bare_soil_area_fraction 0 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
9 water_area_fraction 0 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
10 roof_area_fraction 0.14 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
11 road_area_fraction 0.32 1 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
12 other_paved_area_fraction 0 1 included in road area fraction -
13 building_mean_height 12.6 m Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
14 tree_mean_height 8.4 m Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
15 roughness_length_momentum 1.35 m estimated, see notes derived from morphology, including vegetation, using Kent et al. 2017
16 displacement_height 6 m Nordbo et al. (2013) (morphometric) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-012-9773-y
17 canyon_height_width_ratio 0.25 1 estimated, see notes estimated from typical distance between building frontages (~60m for 5-storey buildings, ~25m for 2-storey buildings)
18 wall_to_plan_area_ratio 0.43 1 estimated, see notes derived from canyon h/w ratio and Eq. 1 from Masson et al. (2020)
19 average_albedo_at_midday 0.142 1 median of observations -
20 resident_population_density 4400 person/km2 Karsisto et al. (2016) (Ku3) https://doi.org/10.1002/qj.2659
21 anthropogenic_heat_flux_mean 6.8 W/m2 Varquez et al (2021) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00850-w
22 topsoil_clay_fraction 0.32 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525663
23 topsoil_sand_fraction 0.35 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525662
24 topsoil_bulk_density 930 kg/m3 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525665
25 building_height_standard_deviation 2 m Nordbo et al. (2013) https://doi.org/10.1007/s10546-012-9773-y
26 roughness_length_momentum_mac 1.72 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 26 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
27 displacement_height_mac 3.8 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 23 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
28 roughness_length_momentum_kanda 1.21 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
29 displacement_height_kanda 9.44 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)

Site forcing

SWdown forcing


LWdown forcing


Tair forcing


Qair forcing


PSurf forcing


Rainf forcing


Snowf forcing


Wind_N forcing


Wind_E forcing


Quality control (qc) and gap filling procedure

QC process on observations

  1. Out-of-range: removal of unphysical values (e.g. negative shortwave radiation) using the ALMA expected range protocol.
  2. Night: nocturnal shortwave radiation set to zero, excluding civil twilight (when the sun is 6° below the horizon).
  3. Constant: four or more timesteps with the same value (excluding zero values for shortwave radiation, rainfall and snowfall) are removed as suspicious.
  4. Outlier: remove values outside ±4 standard deviations for each hour in a rolling 30-day window (to account for diurnal and seasonal variations). Repeat with a larger tolerance (± 5 standard deviations) until no outliers remain. The outlier test is not applied to precipitation.
  5. Visual: remaining suspect readings are removed manually via visual inspection.

Gap-filling process

LWdown diurnal qc


LWup diurnal qc


PSurf diurnal qc


Qair diurnal qc


Qh diurnal qc


Qle diurnal qc


Rainf diurnal qc


SWdown diurnal qc


SWup diurnal qc


Snowf diurnal qc


Tair diurnal qc


Wind_E diurnal qc


Wind_N diurnal qc


Bias correction diurnal comparison

Four methods drawing on ERA5 reanalysis are compared relative to the quality-controlled flux tower data. The methods are:

  1. ERA5: the nearest land based 0.25° resolution ERA5 grid (i.e. without bias correction)
  2. WFDE5: the nearest WFDE5 grid (which use 0.5° gridded monthly observations for bias correction)
  3. UP: the Urban-PLUMBER methods used in this collection (using site observations for bias correction)
  4. LN: linear methods based on FLUXNET2015 (using site observations for bias correction)

ERA5 bias correction

The UP methods are as follows:

Mean absolute error (MAE) is shown in the legend.

Tair diurnal bias correction


Qair diurnal bias correction


PSurf diurnal bias correction


LWdown diurnal bias correction


SWdown diurnal bias correction


Wind diurnal bias correction


Rainf diurnal bias correction


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