Urban-PLUMBER

A multi-site model evaluation project for urban areas

Phase 2 Phase 1 Download project protocol
Mathew Lipson (UNSW), Sue Grimmond (Reading), Martin Best (Met Office),
with observational and modelling participants.

Capitole district, Toulouse, France (FR-Capitole)

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Observations (before additional gap filling)

./obs_plots/all_obs_qc.png

Site forcing metadata

  observation_attributes
title URBAN-PLUMBER forcing data for FR-Capitole
summary Observed and ERA5-derived surface meteorological data for Capitole district, Toulouse, France. Data is for use by registered participants of Urban-PLUMBER in this project only. Do not distribute. All times in UTC.
sitename FR-Capitole
long_sitename Capitole district, Toulouse, France
version v0.9
conventions ALMA+CF.rev13
featureType timeSeries
time_coverage_start 1994-01-01 00:00:00
time_coverage_end 2005-03-01 00:00:00
time_analysis_start 2004-02-20 00:30:00
time_shown_in UTC
local_utc_offset_hours 1.0
timestep_interval_seconds 1800.0
timestep_number_spinup 177697
timestep_number_analysis 18000
observations_contact Valéry Masson (valery.masson@meteo.fr)
observations_reference Masson, Gomes, Pigeon, Liousse, Pont, Lagouarde, Voogt, Salmond, Oke, Hidalgo, Legain, Garrouste, Lac, Connan, Briottet, Lachérade, Tulet (2008): https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-008-0289-4; Goret, Masson, Schoetter, Moine (2019): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
project_contact Mathew Lipson: m.lipson@unsw.edu.au, Sue Grimmond: c.s.grimmond@reading.ac.uk, Martin Best: martin.best@metoffice.gov.uk
date_created 2021-09-16 01:08:44
other_references ERA5: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2017): https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home NCI Australia: http://doi.org/10.25914/5f48874388857
acknowledgements Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information (ERA5 hourly data on single levels). Data from replica hosted by NCI Australia. With thanks to all involved in collecting, processing and hosting observational data
comment Observation height varied depending on windspeed. All observations at lowest tower position (~27m) excluded, with wind speed corrected using log laws, following Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042. Gap-filling from local observations by CNRM. ERA5 snowfall set to zero during analysis period per advice from CNRM.
history v0.9 (2021-09-08): beta issue

Site images

   
Region Regional map. © OpenStreetMap site_map Site map with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap
site_photo Site photo. © V. Masson site_sat Site aerial photo with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap, Microsoft

Maps developed from: Hrisko, J. (2020). Geographic Visualizations in Python with Cartopy. Maker Portal.

Site characteristics

id parameter value units source doi
1 latitude 43.6035 degrees_north Masson et al. (2008) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-008-0289-4
2 longitude 1.4454 degrees_east Masson et al. (2008) https://doi.org/10.1007/s00703-008-0289-4
3 ground_height 143 m Masson, pers. comms. -
4 measurement_height_above_ground 48.05 m Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
5 impervious_area_fraction 0.9 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
6 tree_area_fraction 0.08 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
7 grass_area_fraction 0.02 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
8 bare_soil_area_fraction 0 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
9 water_area_fraction 0 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
10 roof_area_fraction 0.62 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
11 road_area_fraction 0.28 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
12 other_paved_area_fraction 0 1 included in road fraction -
13 building_mean_height 15 m Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
14 tree_mean_height 15 m Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
15 roughness_length_momentum 1.5 m Goret et al. (2019) (rule of thumb) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
16 displacement_height 10.5 m Goret et al. (2019) (rule of thumb) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
17 canyon_height_width_ratio 1.32 1 estimated, see notes derived from wall to plan area and eq. 1 in Masson et al. (2020)
18 wall_to_plan_area_ratio 1 1 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
19 average_albedo_at_midday 0.127 1 median of observations -
20 resident_population_density 13000 person/km2 Goret et al. (2019) https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aeaoa.2019.100042
21 anthropogenic_heat_flux_mean 47.5 W/m2 Varquez et al. (2021) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00850-w
22 topsoil_clay_fraction 0.19 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525663
23 topsoil_sand_fraction 0.47 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525662
24 topsoil_bulk_density 1370 kg/m3 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525665
25 building_height_standard_deviation 6.1 m Ratti et al. (2002) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021380611553
26 roughness_length_momentum_mac 0.21 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 26 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
27 displacement_height_mac 12.73 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 23 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
28 roughness_length_momentum_kanda 0.39 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
29 displacement_height_kanda 23.37 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)

Site forcing

SWdown forcing

SWdown

LWdown forcing

LWdown

Tair forcing

Tair

Qair forcing

Qair

PSurf forcing

PSurf

Rainf forcing

Rainf

Snowf forcing

Snowf

Wind_N forcing

Wind_N

Wind_E forcing

Wind_E

Quality control (qc) and gap filling procedure

QC process on observations

  1. Out-of-range: removal of unphysical values (e.g. negative shortwave radiation) using the ALMA expected range protocol.
  2. Night: nocturnal shortwave radiation set to zero, excluding civil twilight (when the sun is 6° below the horizon).
  3. Constant: four or more timesteps with the same value (excluding zero values for shortwave radiation, rainfall and snowfall) are removed as suspicious.
  4. Outlier: remove values outside ±4 standard deviations for each hour in a rolling 30-day window (to account for diurnal and seasonal variations). Repeat with a larger tolerance (± 5 standard deviations) until no outliers remain. The outlier test is not applied to precipitation.
  5. Visual: remaining suspect readings are removed manually via visual inspection.

Gap-filling process

LWdown diurnal qc

./obs_plots/LWdown_obs_qc_diurnal.png

LWup diurnal qc

./obs_plots/LWup_obs_qc_diurnal.png

PSurf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/PSurf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qair diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qair_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qh diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qh_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qle diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qle_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qtau diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qtau_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Rainf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Rainf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

SWdown diurnal qc

./obs_plots/SWdown_obs_qc_diurnal.png

SWup diurnal qc

./obs_plots/SWup_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Snowf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Snowf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Tair diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Tair_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Wind_E diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Wind_E_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Wind_N diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Wind_N_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Bias correction diurnal comparison

Four methods drawing on ERA5 reanalysis are compared relative to the quality-controlled flux tower data. The methods are:

  1. ERA5: the nearest land based 0.25° resolution ERA5 grid (i.e. without bias correction)
  2. WFDE5: the nearest WFDE5 grid (which use 0.5° gridded monthly observations for bias correction)
  3. UP: the Urban-PLUMBER methods used in this collection (using site observations for bias correction)
  4. LN: linear methods based on FLUXNET2015 (using site observations for bias correction)

ERA5 bias correction

The UP methods are as follows:

Mean absolute error (MAE) is shown in the legend.

Tair diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_Tair_all_diurnal.png

Qair diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_Qair_all_diurnal.png

PSurf diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_PSurf_all_diurnal.png

LWdown diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_LWdown_all_diurnal.png

SWdown diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_SWdown_all_diurnal.png

Wind diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_Wind_all_diurnal.png

Rainf diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/FR-Capitole_Rainf_all_diurnal.png

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