A multi-site model evaluation project for urban areas

Phase 2 Phase 1 Download project protocol
Mathew Lipson (UNSW), Sue Grimmond (Reading), Martin Best (Met Office),
with observational and modelling participants.

Jungnang, Seoul, South Korea (KR-Jungnang)

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Observations (before additional gap filling)


Site forcing metadata

title URBAN-PLUMBER forcing data for KR-Jungnang
summary Observed and ERA5-derived surface meteorological data for Jungnang, Seoul, South Korea. Data is for use by registered participants of Urban-PLUMBER in this project only. Do not distribute. All times in UTC.
sitename KR-Jungnang
long_sitename Jungnang, Seoul, South Korea
version v0.9
conventions ALMA+CF.rev13
featureType timeSeries
time_coverage_start 2007-01-01 00:00:00
time_coverage_end 2019-04-29 06:30:00
time_analysis_start 2017-01-24 16:00:00
time_shown_in UTC
local_utc_offset_hours 9.0
timestep_interval_seconds 1800.0
timestep_number_spinup 176480
timestep_number_analysis 39582
observations_contact Jinkyu Hong (jhong@yonsei.ac.kr), Je-Woo Hong (jwhong@kei.re.kr)
observations_reference Hong, Lee, Hong (2021): https://doi.org/10.22647/EAPL-OC_JN2021
project_contact Mathew Lipson: m.lipson@unsw.edu.au, Sue Grimmond: c.s.grimmond@reading.ac.uk, Martin Best: martin.best@metoffice.gov.uk
date_created 2021-09-16 01:23:22
other_references ERA5: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2017): https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home NCI Australia: http://doi.org/10.25914/5f48874388857
acknowledgements Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information (ERA5 hourly data on single levels). Data from replica hosted by NCI Australia. With thanks to all involved in collecting, processing and hosting observational data
comment No bias correction applied to ERA5 derived precipitation (no nearby long-term and complete GHCND site data)
history v0.9 (2021-09-08): beta issue

Site images

Region Regional map. © OpenStreetMap site_map Site map with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap
site_photo Site photo. © Keunmin Lee site_sat Site aerial photo with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap, Microsoft

Maps developed from: Hrisko, J. (2020). Geographic Visualizations in Python with Cartopy. Maker Portal.

Site characteristics

id parameter value units source doi
1 latitude 37.5907 degrees_north J Hong, pers. comm -
2 longitude 127.079 degrees_east J Hong, pers. comm -
3 ground_height 22 m J Hong, pers. comm -
4 measurement_height_above_ground 41.5 m J Hong, pers. comm -
5 impervious_area_fraction 0.965 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
6 tree_area_fraction 0 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
7 grass_area_fraction 0.019 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
8 bare_soil_area_fraction 0.016 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
9 water_area_fraction 0 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
10 roof_area_fraction 0.588 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
11 road_area_fraction 0.377 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
12 other_paved_area_fraction 0 1 included in road fraction -
13 building_mean_height 8.648 m J Hong, pers. comm -
14 tree_mean_height 0 m J Hong, pers. comm -
15 roughness_length_momentum 0.41 m estimated, see notes derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
16 displacement_height 15.35 m estimated, see notes derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)
17 canyon_height_width_ratio 1 1 estimated, see notes derived from wall_to_plan_area_ratio and eq. 1 of Masson et al. 2020
18 wall_to_plan_area_ratio 0.825 1 J Hong, pers. comm -
19 average_albedo_at_midday 0.12 1 median of observations -
20 resident_population_density 21000 person/km2 J Hong, pers. comm -
21 anthropogenic_heat_flux_mean 92.7 W/m2 Varquez et al. (2021) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00850-w
22 topsoil_clay_fraction 0.2 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525663
23 topsoil_sand_fraction 0.4 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525662
24 topsoil_bulk_density 1270 kg/m3 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525665
25 building_height_standard_deviation 5.4 m estimated, see notes derived from avg. building height and eq. 2 of Kanda et al. 2013
26 roughness_length_momentum_mac 0.13 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 26 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
27 displacement_height_mac 7.16 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 23 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
28 roughness_length_momentum_kanda 0.41 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
29 displacement_height_kanda 15.35 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)

Site forcing

SWdown forcing


LWdown forcing


Tair forcing


Qair forcing


PSurf forcing


Rainf forcing


Snowf forcing


Wind_N forcing


Wind_E forcing


Quality control (qc) and gap filling procedure

QC process on observations

  1. Out-of-range: removal of unphysical values (e.g. negative shortwave radiation) using the ALMA expected range protocol.
  2. Night: nocturnal shortwave radiation set to zero, excluding civil twilight (when the sun is 6° below the horizon).
  3. Constant: four or more timesteps with the same value (excluding zero values for shortwave radiation, rainfall and snowfall) are removed as suspicious.
  4. Outlier: remove values outside ±4 standard deviations for each hour in a rolling 30-day window (to account for diurnal and seasonal variations). Repeat with a larger tolerance (± 5 standard deviations) until no outliers remain. The outlier test is not applied to precipitation.
  5. Visual: remaining suspect readings are removed manually via visual inspection.

Gap-filling process

LWdown diurnal qc


LWup diurnal qc


PSurf diurnal qc


Qair diurnal qc


Qh diurnal qc


Qle diurnal qc


Rainf diurnal qc


SWdown diurnal qc


SWup diurnal qc


Snowf diurnal qc


Tair diurnal qc


Wind_E diurnal qc


Wind_N diurnal qc


Bias correction diurnal comparison

Four methods drawing on ERA5 reanalysis are compared relative to the quality-controlled flux tower data. The methods are:

  1. ERA5: the nearest land based 0.25° resolution ERA5 grid (i.e. without bias correction)
  2. WFDE5: the nearest WFDE5 grid (which use 0.5° gridded monthly observations for bias correction)
  3. UP: the Urban-PLUMBER methods used in this collection (using site observations for bias correction)
  4. LN: linear methods based on FLUXNET2015 (using site observations for bias correction)

ERA5 bias correction

The UP methods are as follows:

Mean absolute error (MAE) is shown in the legend.

Tair diurnal bias correction


Qair diurnal bias correction


PSurf diurnal bias correction


LWdown diurnal bias correction


SWdown diurnal bias correction


Wind diurnal bias correction


Rainf diurnal bias correction


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