Urban-PLUMBER

A multi-site model evaluation project for urban areas

Phase 2 Phase 1 Download project protocol
Mathew Lipson (UNSW), Sue Grimmond (Reading), Martin Best (Met Office),
with observational and modelling participants.

KUOM Tall Tower, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States (US-Minneapolis1)

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Observations (before additional gap filling)

./obs_plots/all_obs_qc.png

Site forcing metadata

  observation_attributes
title URBAN-PLUMBER forcing data for US-Minneapolis1
summary Observed and ERA5-derived surface meteorological data for KUOM Tall Tower, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States. Data is for use by registered participants of Urban-PLUMBER in this project only. Do not distribute. All times in UTC.
sitename US-Minneapolis1
long_sitename KUOM Tall Tower, Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States
version v0.9
conventions ALMA+CF.rev13
featureType timeSeries
time_coverage_start 1996-01-01 00:00:00
time_coverage_end 2009-05-29 13:00:00
time_analysis_start 2006-06-01 18:00:00
time_shown_in UTC
local_utc_offset_hours -6.0
timestep_interval_seconds 1800.0
timestep_number_spinup 182628
timestep_number_analysis 52455
observations_contact Joe McFadden (mcfadden@ucsb.edu) University of California, Santa Barbara
observations_reference Peters, Hiller, McFadden (2011): https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001463; Menzer and McFadden (2017): https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2017.09.049
project_contact Mathew Lipson: m.lipson@unsw.edu.au, Sue Grimmond: c.s.grimmond@reading.ac.uk, Martin Best: martin.best@metoffice.gov.uk
date_created 2021-09-16 14:00:34
other_references ERA5: Copernicus Climate Change Service (C3S) (2017): https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/cdsapp#!/home NCI Australia: http://doi.org/10.25914/5f48874388857
acknowledgements Contains modified Copernicus Climate Change Service Information (ERA5 hourly data on single levels). Data from replica hosted by NCI Australia. With thanks to all involved in collecting, processing and hosting observational data
comment Residential sectors (285°-75°) of Minneapolis KUOM tower. Air pressure (PSurf) from Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport. Radiation components (SWdown,SWup,LWdown,LWup) measured at 2 m above ground level, not from tower as other variables. SoilTemp at 5cm depth. Tower fluxes from original dataset which are flagged 2 excluded.
history v0.9 (2021-09-08): beta issue

Site images

   
Region Regional map. © OpenStreetMap site_map Site map with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap
site_photo Site photo. © J. McFadden site_sat Site aerial photo with 500 m radius. © OpenStreetMap, Microsoft

Maps developed from: Hrisko, J. (2020). Geographic Visualizations in Python with Cartopy. Maker Portal.

Site characteristics

id parameter value units source doi
1 latitude 44.9984 degrees_north Peters et al. (2011) https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001463
2 longitude -93.1884 degrees_east Peters et al. (2011) https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001463
3 ground_height 301 m site metadata https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
4 measurement_height_above_ground 40 m Peters et al. (2011) https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001463
5 impervious_area_fraction 0.21 1 weighted footprint fraction https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
6 tree_area_fraction 0.38 1 weighted footprint fraction https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
7 grass_area_fraction 0.36 1 weighted footprint fraction https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
8 bare_soil_area_fraction 0 1 weighted footprint fraction https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
9 water_area_fraction 0.05 1 weighted footprint fraction https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
10 roof_area_fraction 0.12 1 Jarvi et al. 2017 (supplemental) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05733-y
11 road_area_fraction 0.05 1 Jarvi et al. 2017 (supplemental) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05733-y
12 other_paved_area_fraction 0.04 1 Jarvi et al. 2017 (supplemental) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05733-y
13 building_mean_height 5.05 m McFadden, pers. comms. calculated from LiDAR data within full footprint
14 tree_mean_height 12 m Peters et al. (2011) https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JG001463
15 roughness_length_momentum 0.41 m estimate, see notes derived from morphology, including vegetation, using Kent et al. 2017
16 displacement_height 3.09 m estimate, see notes derived from morphology, including vegetation, using Kent et al. 2017
17 canyon_height_width_ratio 0.05 1 estimated, see notes derived from estimate of wall to plan area ratio and Eq. 1 from Masson et al. (2020)
18 wall_to_plan_area_ratio 0.097 1 estimated, see notes derived from perimeter of building footprint (from satellite imagery) times estimated average building height
19 average_albedo_at_midday 0.213 1 median of observations -
20 resident_population_density 1125 person/km2 site metadata https://ameriflux.lbl.gov/sites/siteinfo/US-KUO#overview
21 anthropogenic_heat_flux_mean 1.8 W/m2 Varquez et al. (2021) https://doi.org/10.1038/s41597-021-00850-w
22 topsoil_clay_fraction 0.15 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525663
23 topsoil_sand_fraction 0.46 1 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525662
24 topsoil_bulk_density 1490 kg/m3 OpenLandMap https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.2525665
25 building_height_standard_deviation 3.11 m McFadden, pers. comms. calculated from LiDAR data within full footprint
26 roughness_length_momentum_mac 0.12 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 26 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
27 displacement_height_mac 1.33 m Macdonald method derived from morphology using eq. 23 of Macdonald et al. (1998)
28 roughness_length_momentum_kanda 0.09 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 12a of Kanda et al. (2013)
29 displacement_height_kanda 5.13 m Kanda method derived from morphology using eq. 10a of Kanda et al. (2013)

Site forcing

SWdown forcing

SWdown

LWdown forcing

LWdown

Tair forcing

Tair

Qair forcing

Qair

PSurf forcing

PSurf

Rainf forcing

Rainf

Snowf forcing

Snowf

Wind_N forcing

Wind_N

Wind_E forcing

Wind_E

Quality control (qc) and gap filling procedure

QC process on observations

  1. Out-of-range: removal of unphysical values (e.g. negative shortwave radiation) using the ALMA expected range protocol.
  2. Night: nocturnal shortwave radiation set to zero, excluding civil twilight (when the sun is 6° below the horizon).
  3. Constant: four or more timesteps with the same value (excluding zero values for shortwave radiation, rainfall and snowfall) are removed as suspicious.
  4. Outlier: remove values outside ±4 standard deviations for each hour in a rolling 30-day window (to account for diurnal and seasonal variations). Repeat with a larger tolerance (± 5 standard deviations) until no outliers remain. The outlier test is not applied to precipitation.
  5. Visual: remaining suspect readings are removed manually via visual inspection.

Gap-filling process

LWdown diurnal qc

./obs_plots/LWdown_obs_qc_diurnal.png

LWup diurnal qc

./obs_plots/LWup_obs_qc_diurnal.png

PSurf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/PSurf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qair diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qair_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qg diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qg_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qh diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qh_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qle diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qle_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Qtau diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Qtau_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Rainf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Rainf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

SWdown diurnal qc

./obs_plots/SWdown_obs_qc_diurnal.png

SWup diurnal qc

./obs_plots/SWup_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Snowf diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Snowf_obs_qc_diurnal.png

SoilTemp diurnal qc

./obs_plots/SoilTemp_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Tair diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Tair_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Wind_E diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Wind_E_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Wind_N diurnal qc

./obs_plots/Wind_N_obs_qc_diurnal.png

Bias correction diurnal comparison

Four methods drawing on ERA5 reanalysis are compared relative to the quality-controlled flux tower data. The methods are:

  1. ERA5: the nearest land based 0.25° resolution ERA5 grid (i.e. without bias correction)
  2. WFDE5: the nearest WFDE5 grid (which use 0.5° gridded monthly observations for bias correction)
  3. UP: the Urban-PLUMBER methods used in this collection (using site observations for bias correction)
  4. LN: linear methods based on FLUXNET2015 (using site observations for bias correction)

ERA5 bias correction

The UP methods are as follows:

Mean absolute error (MAE) is shown in the legend.

Tair diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_Tair_all_diurnal.png

Qair diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_Qair_all_diurnal.png

PSurf diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_PSurf_all_diurnal.png

LWdown diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_LWdown_all_diurnal.png

SWdown diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_SWdown_all_diurnal.png

Wind diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_Wind_all_diurnal.png

Rainf diurnal bias correction

./era_correction/US-Minneapolis1_Rainf_all_diurnal.png

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